Legal and Policy Approaches to Mitigating Coastal Ocean Acidification

PI: Meg Caldwell and Ryan Kelly


Research Institution:  Center for Ocean Solutions, Stanford University

PI First name, Last name:   Meg Caldwell and Ryan Kelly

Phone:   650-723-4057 (Meg); 510-326-8920 (Ryan)

Email:  Meg Caldwell <>; Ryan Kelly <>


PROJECT DESCRIPTION:  Mitigating ocean acidification requires finding legal and policy tools to address each of the underlying causes driving widespread chemical change.  To date we have focused on non-CO2 drivers–such as nutrient runoff and SOx/NOx deposition–that are likely to be significant sources of acidification in the highly-productive coastal ocean, because of the existing laws available to address these inputs.  State laws, and state implementation of the federal Clean Air Act and Clean Water Act, offer a wide variety of tools that are likely to be effective to combat coastal acidification, buying time as we work toward a broader CO2 solution.

KEYWORDS: Law, policy, Clean Water Act, coastal zone, acidification

FUNDING AGENCY (if available): Packard Foundation